General Document Guidelines
- Margins: One inch on all sides (top, bottom, left, right)
- Font Size and Type: 12-pt. Times New Roman font
- Line Spacing: Double-space throughout the paper, including the title page, abstract, body of the document, references, appendixes, footnotes, tables, and figures.
- Spacing after Punctuation: Space once after commas, colons, and semicolons within sentences. Insert two spaces after punctuation marks that end sentences.
- Alignment: Flush left (creating uneven right margin)
- Paragraph Indentation: 5-7 spaces
- Pagination: The page number appears one inch from the right edge of the paper on the first line of every page.
- Pagination: The Title Page is page 1.
- Key Elements: Paper title, author(s), institutional affiliation(s), author note.
- Paper Title: Uppercase and lowercase letters, centered on the page.
- Author(s): Uppercase and lowercase letters, centered on the line following the title.
- Institutional affiliation: Uppercase and lowercase letters, centered on the line following the author(s).
The abstract is a one-paragraph, self-contained summary of the most important elements of the paper.
- Pagination: The abstract begins on a new page (page 2).
- Format: The abstract (in block format) begins on the line following the Abstract heading. The abstract word limit is set by individual journals. Typically, the word limit is between 150 and 250 words. All numbers in the abstract (except those beginning a sentence) should be typed as digits rather than words.
- Pagination: The body of the paper begins on a new page (page 3). Subsections of the body of the paper do not begin on new pages.
- Title: The title of the paper (in uppercase and lowercase letters) is centered on the first line below the running head.
- Introduction: The introduction (which is not labeled) begins on the line following the paper title.
- Headings: Five levels of headings are available to be used to organize the paper and reflect the relative importance of sections. For example, many empirical research articles utilize two levels of headings: Main headings (such as Method, Results, Discussion, References) would use Level 1 (centered, boldface, uppercase and lowercase letters), and subheadings (such as Participants, Apparatus, and Procedure as subsections of the Method section) would use Level 2 (flush left, boldface, uppercase and lowercase letters).
In APA style, in-text citations are placed within sentences and paragraphs so that it is clear what information is being quoted or paraphrased and whose information is being cited.
- Examples: (Simon, 1945) or (Leiter & Maslach, 1998).
All sources included in the References section must be cited in the body of the paper (and all sources cited in the paper must be included in the References section).
- Pagination: The References section begins on a new page.
- Heading: "References" (centered on the first line below the running head)
- Format: The references (with hanging indent) begin on the line following the References heading. Entries are organized alphabetically by surnames of first authors. Most reference entries have the following components:
- Authors: Authors are listed in the same order as specified in the source, using surnames and initials. Commas separate all authors. When there are eight or more authors, list the first six authors followed by three ellipses (...) and then the final author. If no author is identified, the title of the document begins the reference.
- Year of Publication: In parentheses following authors, with a period following the closing parenthesis. If no publication date is identified, use "n.d." in parentheses following the authors.
- Source Reference: Includes title, journal, volume, pages (for journal article) or title, city of publication, publisher (for book). Italicize titles of books, titles of periodicals, and periodical volume numbers.
- Examples of sources
- Journal article with DOI
Murzynski, J., & Degelman, D. (1996). Body language of women and judgments of vulnerability to sexual assault. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 26, 1617-1626. doi:10.1111/j.1559-1816.1996.tb00088.x
- Journal article without DOI, print version
Koenig, H. G. (1990). Research on religion and mental health in later life: A review and commentary. Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 23, 23-53.
- Journal article without DOI, retrieved online [Note: For articles retrieved from databases, include the URL of the journal home page. Database information is not needed. Do not include the date of retrieval.]
Aldridge, D. (1991). Spirituality, healing and medicine. British Journal of General Practice, 41, 425-427. Retrieved from http://www.rcgp.org.uk/publications/bjgp.aspx
Paloutzian, R. F. (1996). Invitation to the psychology of religion (2nd ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.
- Informally published Web document
Degelman, D. (2009). APA style essentials. Retrieved from http://www.vanguard.edu/faculty/ddegelman/detail.aspx?doc_id=796
- Informally published Web document (no date)
Nielsen, M. E. (n.d.). Notable people in psychology of religion. Retrieved from http://www.psywww.com/psyrelig/psyrelpr.htm
- Informally published Web document (no author, no date)
Gender and society. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.trinity.edu/~mkearl/gender.html
- Abstract from secondary database
Garrity, K., & Degelman, D. (1990). Effect of server introduction on restaurant tipping. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 20, 168-172. Abstract retrieved from PsycINFO database.
- Article or chapter in an edited book
Shea, J. D. (1992). Religion and sexual adjustment. In J. F. Schumaker (Ed.), Religion and mental health (pp. 70-84). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
- Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed., text rev.). Washington, DC: Author.
A common use of tables is to present quantitative data or the results of statistical analyses (such as ANOVA). See the Publication Manual (2010, pp. 128-150) for detailed examples. Tables must be mentioned in the text.
- Pagination: Each Table begins on a separate page.
- Heading: "Table 1" (or 2 or 3, etc.) is typed flush left on the first line below the running head. Double-space and type the table title flush left (italicized in uppercase and lowercase letters).
A common use of Figures is to present graphs, photographs, or other illustrations (other than tables). See the Publication Manual (2010, pp. 150-167) for detailed examples.
- Pagination: Figures begin on a separate page.
- Figure Caption: "Figure 1." (or 2 or 3, etc.) is typed flush left and italicized on the first line below the figure, immediately followed on the same line by the caption (which should be a brief descriptive phrase).