ENGINEERING GEOPHYSICS (STAG 6313)
This course is a survey of the principal geophysical techniques used in the engineering and environmental industries. It will give the non-specialist an understanding of the capabilities and limitations of geophysics, and an appreciation for which geophysical techniques would be appropriate for particular applications. The basics of the interpretation of raw and processed data will also be covered. We will look at:
• selecting a technique to meet survey objectives
• designing a survey by selecting survey parameters
• survey execution
• interpretation of survey results
The texts are:
1.An Introduction to
Applied and Environmental Geophysics by
2. Exploration Geophysics of the Shallow Subsurface, 1992, H. R. Burger, w/ Macintosh computer software, Prentice Hall, 489 pp
3. Field Geophysics by J. Milsom
Also useful references are:
Applied Geophysics for Geologists and Engineers, 1981, by D.H. Griffiths and R.F. King. 2nd Edition , Pergamon Press, 230pp.
Looking into the Earth by P. Kearey and A. Khan.
An Introduction to Geophysical Exploration by Kearey, Brooks, and Hill
Principles of Applied Geophysics by D.S. Parasnis
Environmental and Engineering Geophysics, 1997, by Sharma, P. V., 1997., Cambridge University Press, 475pp
Geophysical Prospecting by
Dobrin and Savit
Applied Geophysics by W.M. Telford, L.P. Geldard and R.E. Sheriff
Symposium on the
Application of Geophysics to Engineering and Environmental Problems (SAGEEP)
Geophysical Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society
Journal of Geophysical Research
Pure and Applied Geophysics
Geotechnical and Environmental Geophysics
Journal of Applied Geophysics
Journal of Environmental and Engineering Geophysics
Mid term exam 20%
Final exam 40%
Tuesday 10.00 –12.00 (Lecture) & 14.00 – 17.00 (Practical)
Place: Postgraduate Room (2nd floor, Geology Building)
Lecturers: Prof. Dr. Abdul Rahim Samsudin, Assoc. Prof. Dr. Umar Hamzah, Assoc. Prof. Dr.Abdul Ghani Rafek & Mr.Khairul Anuar Mohd Nayan.
WEEK 1) Introduction notes (ARS)
Engineering geophysics : a geophysicist’s view, a geologist’s view and a civil engineer’s view point
WEEK 2) Overview of geophysical techniques and their uses. (ARS)
WEEK 3) The role of engineering geophysics in site investigation (KMN)
Scope of engineering geophysics, What are the important parameters in engineering geophysics? Application of geophysical parameters in engineering designing.Example of an applications. Use and misuse of engineering geophysics. The role of engineering geophysics in site investigation and design of engineering structures.
WEEK 4) GRAVITY (ARS): The description of the Earth’s gravity field. Latitude, free-air, Bouguer and terrain corrections. Densities of rocks and minerals. Survey parameters and survey objectives. Measuring the terrain density. Regional-residual separation. Characteristic anomalies. Depth-to-source estimates. Interpretation.
WEEK 5) ) MAGNETICS (ARS): Description of the Earth’s magnetic field. Magnetic minerals. Survey parameters and survey objectives. Vector vs total field measurements. Characteristic anomalies. Depth-to-source estimates. Interpretation.
WEEK 6) Seismic Refraction ( AGR): P and S waves - properties and speeds. Poisson’s ratio, Young’s modulus, Lam´e parameters. Surface waves. Snell’s Law. Critical angle. Interpretation of simple layered structures
WEEK 7) SASW technique (KMN)
WEEK 9) Seismic (down hole & cross hole) (KMN)
WEEK10 & 11) Seismic Tomography (Dr.Rachmat Sule)
WEEK 12& 13) Seismic Reflection (UH) :Geophones and recorders. Acoustic impedance and reflectivity. Normal moveout, converting time to depth. Survey parameters, fold, common mid-point gathers, identifying reflections and multiples, processing steps
WEEK 14 & 15) Electrical methods (UH):
a) RESISTIVITY: Sounding vs profiling. 2-D electrical Imaging. The common electrode geometries; Schlumberger, Wenner and dipole-dipole. The definition of apparent resistivity. Equivalence, suppression, ambiguity and resolution. Interpretation. Spontaneous Potential
b) INDUCED POLARIZATION: Polarization mechanisms in rock, electrode polarization, membrane polarization, seiving potentials. Time domain vs frequency domain IP. Unpolarizable electrodes. The Cole-Cole description of relaxation. Interpretation.)
Week 16) Final Examination
LAB 1) Gravity data acquisition & corrections.
LAB 2) Gravity data interpretation.
LAB 3). Magnetic data acquisition & corrections
LAB 4) Magnetics data interpretation.
LAB 5) Seismic Refraction Interpretation
LAB 6) SASW data interpretation
LAB 7) Seismic Down hole
LAB 8) Seismic Tomography
LAB 9) Seismic reflection interpretation
LAB 10) Resistivity data interpretation
Field works for geophysical data acquisition will be arranged which may involved week end and mid-semester holiday